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Karikatürleri

Kıbrıs Türk Karikatür Sanatının Kısa Bir Özeti

 

    A SHORT SUMMARY OF TURKISH CYPRIOT CARTOONS
    Hüseyin Çakmak

    ON TURKISH CYPRIOT HUMOR...

    First of all, there was "Oral Humor" in the Turkish Cypriot Community...

    Humorous Poems (Satires) recited by bards and folk poets, shadow-theater characters like "Karagöz-Hacivat",       public story tellers' stories containing satire and wisecrack are considered the first examples of Turkish Cypriot Humor...

    Turkish Cypriot Humor is-heavily based on Ottoman humor due to the fact that the Island of Cyprus was under the control of the Ottoman Empire for many years (1571-1878). The people who were sent from different regions of Anatolia not only brought their traditions and customs but also brought their culture along with them.

    Humor which plays an important part in the Cypriot Turkish Community has not only been reflected as a social entertainment mediator (shadow plays, puppet shows) with thetrical characteristics but also has been used in the various branches (story, epic, riddle, ballad, tongue-twister) of Turkish Cypriot Oral Folk literature...

    Turkish Cypriot Humor was passed over orally from the beginning of the Ottoman Empire (1571) till the date when the Island's control was handed to the British Empire (1878). The reason for that is during the reign of the Ottoman Empire there weren't any independent printing facilities in Cyprus; to allow newspapers and magazines to be published...

    With the development of independent printing, Turkish Cypriot and Greek Communities atarted to publish their own newspapers. "Saadet" (1889-?) was the first newspaper published by the Turkish Cypriots to be followed by various newspapers.

    In Turkish Cypriot Humor "The period of humor with caption" started with the first humor newspaper "Kokonoz" (1896-1910)
The Turkish Cypriot cartoon as an art starts with "Davul".

 

THE FIRST CARTOONIST IN TURKISH CYPRIOT PRESS:
AHMET RİFAT EFENDİ...

    The first models of the Turkish Cypriot Cartoon as an art are seen in "Davul" a humor newspaper. Ahmet Rifat Efendi (1892-1975) known as "Klişeci Rifat" in Cypriot Turkish Press in the creator of these cartoons. Most of the cartoons published in "Davul" humor newspaper are related to the War of Independence and M. Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Turkish Republic. In the cartoons of Ahmet R. Efendi imperialist states attacking Anatolia are criticized; on the other hand, National Forces and Anatolian people fighting for independence under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk are praised. Besides being the first Turkish Cypriot cartoonist, Ahmet Rifat Efendi is the first and the last person to publish his cartoons using the Ottoman Turkish script. Ahmet Rifat Efendi drew cartoons not only for "Ses" newspaper (1935-1938) but for "Davul" humor newspaper as well...

 "CARTOONS WITH CAPTION" THE PERIOD IN THE TURKISH CYPRIOT CARTOON...

    Researches state that there was no other cartoonist but Ahmet Rifat Efendi in the Cyprus Turkish Community until late 1940's. Between the years 1940 and 1950 the drawings of three important cartoonist appear in the Cypriot Turkish Press: İsmet Vehit Güney, Şevki Çankaya and Ramiz Gökçe...

    All of them are the most influential cartoonists of that period. In those days the trend of "cartoons wit captions" is effective. The cartoons are more like pictures. The mesage of the content and spirit is emphasized in the caption. In the Cypriot Turkish Community, İsmet Güney, mostly knows as an artist published his cartoons in "İstiklal" (1949-1953) and "Köylü" (1954-1955), the most influential newspapers of that period. The cartoons of Şevki Çankaya were mostly seen in the newspapers in Turkey rather than Turkish Cypriot Press...

    Ramiz Gökçe first began to draw cartoons in "Duvar Gazetesi" in 1956 when he was studying at "Mağusa Namık Kemal High School". He intensified his activities and published his works in a book form called "Çizgi." It was the first cartoon publication in Cypriot Turkish Cartoon. Ramiz Gökçe published his works in "Halkın Sesi" (1942), "Bozkurt" (1951-1991), "Time of Cyprus" (1955) and "Cyprus Mail" (1945)...

    Toward the end of the 1940's the humor magazine "Zırıltı" (1947-1948) was published, but this magazine didn't allow much space to cartoon. It published humorous articles and poems rather than cartoons. It is also known that most of the works in "Zırıltı" had been published under false names...

PERIOD OF REFORMATION OF TURKISH CYPRIOT CARTOON

    The years between 1960 and 1970 were classified as the "Reformation" period of the Turkish Cypriot cartoon. "Caption cartoon" which was published before 1960's was replaced by less verbal forms of cartoon. The subject and humor content in cartoons were completed with verbal forms and lines. In the 1960's Ramiz Gökçe published his works in "Karga" (Crow) a humor magazine (1964-1965); then the cartoonists Tarık Arsal and Aziz Amerikalı also published their works in a humor magazine called "Amcabey" (1965-1966)...

    In the 1970's cartoonists also continued to publish their works in various magazines and newspapers: Güner Pir; "Halkın Sesi", "Zaman" (1973-1979), Erdoğan Baybars; "Savaş", "Bozkurt" and "Halkın Sesi" (1968-1973), Erten Kasımoğlu; "Halkın Sesi, "Kurtuluş" (1978-1984) "Öncü" (1981-1981) and "Yeni Devir" (1978-1979), Serhan Gazioğlu; "Yeni Düzen" and "Halkın Sesi", Necmi Astam; "Olay" (1978-1985) and "Halkın Sesi"... The cartoonists of this period were not only responsible for the reformation but also the production of the first no-caption cartoon...

THE PERIOD OF "UNIVERSALITY" IN TURKISH CYPRIOT CARTOON

    1980's is the beginning of an important period in Turkish Cypriot Cartoon. The soncept of "no-caption cartoon" which started in the 1970's started gaining universal dimensions under the leadership of cartoonist Musa Kayra. In these years we come across cartoonist who have been active and successful not only in local but also in international press: Musa Kayra, Hüseyin Çakmak, Alper Susuzlu, Mustafa Tozakı, Mehmet Ulubatlı, Cemal Tunceri, Bertan Soyer and Arif Albayrak...

    The cartoons of this period reflect the local and universal problems and happenings using 'lines'. Different symbols were used to express the subject and humor underlying it. The cartoons drawn in this style act as a visual language which reflect and explain the common local and universal problems of many a country. Turkish Cypriot Cartoonist who practides this art from were awarded many prizes in many different countries. In the 1980's and 1990's the cartoonist whose works appeared more in the Turkish Cypriot press rather than in international publications were; Serhan Gazioğlu, Necmi Astam, Mustafa Azizoğlu, Erdoğan Baybars, Ramiz Gökçe, Utku Karsu, Zühal Denizci, Aziz Yavuzdoğan, Kemal Bozkurt, Ergin Asyalı, Ergün Şoföroğulları...

THE PERIOD OF ORGANIZATION OF THE TURKISH CYPRIOT CARTOONIST

    Turkish Cypriot Cartoonist, up to the year 1986, acted and showed up as inviduals. Although they were contemporary and lived in a very small country, they were unaware of each other's existence. Before the foundation of the Association of the Turkish Cypriot Cartoonist, the local cartoonist could only convey messages to the public via newspapers and magazines...

    Turkish Cypriot Cartoon Art started toward the end of the 1970's in street and hall exhibitions along with the help of various publishers. However, a lot of  cartoonists were deprived of their professional rights and had no artistic collaboration...

    To maintain these rights an organization was neccessary. The Turkish Cypriot Cartoonists Association was founded in January 25, 1986 by a group consisting of M. Serhan Gazioğlu, Alper Susuzlu, Hüseyin Çakmak, Mehmet Ulubatlı, Musa Kayra and Cemal Tunceri. The aims in establishing this organization was explained as stated below:

    1) Turkish Cypriot Cartoonists Association will proceed activities universally without parting of the ways in Religion, Language, race and nationality; and will observe the rules and traditions of the world cartoon organizations...

    2) The association will organize the Turkish Cypriot Cartoonist performing activities individually rather than collectively; and will protect the Cartoonists rights along with their copyrights...

    3) The association will help to educate and improve the professional standards of the cartoonist in Cyprus...

    4) The association will promote activities both at home and abroad to introduce Cypriot and world cartoon by procuring documents on their historical background. It will also establish an "International Museum of Humor and Cartoon"...

    5) To introduce Cypriot and world cartoon the association will help open solo and joint exhibitions, will have symposiums and help publish promotional documents.

    Since its establishment Turkish Cypriot Cartoonists Association despite many cultural-political barriers, pressures and restrictions, has realized activities over 100 both within the country and abroad, and also cooperated with nearly 800 professional and cultural organizations in over 90 countries. The first executibe committee and the members of the present executive committee are as follows:  

Members of the temporary executive committee (1986-1987):

    Hüseyin Çakmak (President), Alper Susuzlu (General Secretary), Cemal Tunceri (Auditor), Serhan Gazioğlu (Member), Mehmet Ulubatlı (Member)...

 

Current Members of the executive committe: (1987-1990)

Hüseyin Çakmak (President), Alper Susuzlu (General Secretary), Serhan Gazioğlu (Auditor), Musa kayra (Member), Mustafa Tozakı (Member)...

 

Current Members of the executive committe: (1990-1993)

Hüseyin Çakmak (President), Musa Kayra (General Secretary), Bertan Soyer (Financial Secretary), Ramiz Gökçe (Member), Mehmet Ulubatlı (Member)...

 

Current Members of the executive committe: (1993-)

Hüseyin Çakmak (President), Musa Kayra (General Secretary), Mehmet Ulubatlı (Administrative Secretary), Ulus Irkad (Secretary of Foreign Affairs), Bertan Soyer (Member), Mustafa Tozakı (Mermber)...

THE FEDERATION OF THE EUROPEAN CARTOONISTS ORGANIZATION (FECO) AND CYPRUS REPRESENTATIVE FECO-CYPRUS
    In 1988 Turkish Cypriot Cartoonists Association was accepted as a member to the Federation of the European Cartoonists Organization (FECO) and has won an International identity, and indulged in a different kind of organization under the name of FECO-CYPRUS. Hüseyin Çakmak was appointed as Vice-President General of FECO and Musa Kayra as Vice-Secretary General as a result of FECO...

    FECO with its headquaters in Holland has started a rapid organization called the Federation of the World Cartoonists Organization accepting the following countries as true member states:

    Australia,Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Egypt, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey...

The countries accepted as an-hoc committee are:

    Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Denmark, France, Hungary, India, Italy, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Norway, Singapore, Ukraina, Yugoslavia, United States America...

    There is a bi-monthly International Publication called "FECONEWS" of the European Cartoonists Organization "FECO" which provides many professional facilities to its member cartoonists and associations. The organization also has the rihgt to issue "International Press Card", and its President is Ronald Libin from Belgium. The General Secretary is Peter Neiuwendijik from Holland...

HUMOR MAGAZINES AND NEWSPAPERS THAT ATTACHED SIGNIFICANCE TO CARTTONS IN TURKISH CYPRIOT PRESS
    There are seven magazines and newspapers in the Turkish Cypriot Press which published cartoons and these are: "Kokonoz" (1896-1910) "Akbaba" (1897-1898), "Davul" (1920-1923) "Zırıltı" (1947-1948), "Karga" (1964-1968), "Amcabey" (1965-1966), "Akrep" (1988 -), "Lololo" (1993-)... Those not only had humorous writings but cartoons as well. Following is a brief outlook on each of these magazines:

DAVUL HUMOUR AND CARTOON MAGAZINE (1920-1923)
    Owner-Ahmet Rifat Efendi. Director-Mehmet İhsan Uzman. 50 issues were published. It was two pages long and was published once a week. It was the longest surviving magazine. It was published for three years. In every issue there were carttons by Ahmet Rifat. The newspaper carried homorous articles and poems signed by pen-names. Here is how "Davul" explains its objectives: "In Cyprus some Turkish newspapers have bben published so far but "Davul" is the first one with pictures. It is clear that the society is in need of it. Publishing it is a difficult job. However it needs self-sacrifice. We are doing our best. But we also want understanding and support from the society. Recently, on the island, there have been three pictured Greek humor newspapers and they are making fun of us on every pretext. Own newspaper will act as an "antidote" in every aspect against them"...

"ZIRILTI" HUMOUR MAGAZINE (1947-1948):
    Owner: M. Kazım Bedevi (Yavuz) Altogether it had only 11 issues. "Zırıltı" humor newspaper consisted of 6 pages and was published monthly. The magazine, which had only a few cartoons, cpnsisted of humorous short stories, poems and articles. Those works were generally published under pseudo names...

"KARGA" HUMOUR MAGAZINE (1964-1965):
    Owner: Ismet Kotak on behalf of Famagusta Local Radio "Canbulat" and Cyprus Turkish Information Office. It was published bi-monthly and had a 20 page content. Altogether there were 30 issues. It was one of the most important humor magazines published in the Turkish Cypriot Community. During the periods of struggle between the Turkish and Greek Cypriots, Turkish Cypriots had difficulty of transportation and communication. For this reason, daily Turkish newspapers couldn't be reached to towns and villages. Exposcd to conditions such as those, Turkish people living in Famagusta published "Karga" humor magazine. The magazine was published in leaflets in very limited numbers. Despite being a local magazine, it had a very high circulation. Cartoons were contributions of Ramiz Gokce; and the writers were Ismet Kotak, Eşref Nidai, Hasan Tuncer, Nazım Turanlı, Necati Erozan, Mehmet Niyazi, Hüseyin Cemal, Yıldıray Fenercioğlu, Erdoğan Muhammet, Kadriye Cemal, Zehra Özalp, Behçet Hüseyin...

"AMCABEY" HUMOUR MAGAZINE (1965-1966):
    Owner: Hüseyin Kanatlı, Ersin Taşer. The 16 page magazine which was published once a month came to a standstill after the third issue. It is known that the name of the magazine was inspired by "Amcabey", the humor and cartoon magazine of Turkey by the famous Turkish cartoonist Cemal Nadir. Writers who contributed to the magazine were Hüseyin Kanatlı, Enver Öztunç while the cartoons were by Tarık Arsal, and Aziz Amerikalı. A lot of pseudo names were used in the humorous writings published in the magazine...

"AKREP" HUMOUR AND CARTOON MAGAZINE (1988-):
    Owner: Akrep Publishing Company. General Director: Hüseyin Çakmak; Editör: Musa Kayra. Humor magazine "Akrep" was published about 20 years after the publication of "Amcabey" was brought to an end. It is in appearance and content of international standards. The editorial policy of the newspaper is to express humor using "lines", mainly in cartoon forms. The newspaper was originally published monthly but due to some financial and technical problems started being published less frequently. Compared with the previous humor newspapers "Akrep" has the biggest number of cartoonists. In addition to Turkish Cypriot cartoonists and humor writers, the paper (Akrep) publishes the works of cartoonists from different parts of the world. It is sent to different countries. It is published in a twenty four page tabloit form. So far, it has been issued eleven times...

    The cartoonists who contributed to Akrep: Serhan Gazioğlu, Musa Kayra, Mustafa Tozakı, Mehmet Ulubatlı, Erdoğan Baybars, Cemal Tunceri, Ramiz Gökçe, Alper Susuzlu, Arif Albayrak, Hüseyin Çakmak, Bertan Soyer, Utku Karsu. Humor Writers whose writings appeared were Hıfzı Topuz, Turgut Çeviker, Sevdakar Çelik, Ulus Irkad, Kutlu Adalı, Bülent Fevzioğlu, Zeki Erkut, Mustafa Gökçeoğlu, Ümit İnatçı...

 "LOLOLO" HUMOUR MAGAZINE (1993-1993):
   
(Owner: Erdoğan Baybars) which appeared in 1993 as eight pages in A4 size, stopped its publication after the third issue. In addition to local carttonists and humor writers, it published the works of foreign cartoonists.

CARTOONISTS IN THE TURKISH CYPRIOT PRESS:
   
Since the publication of "Saadet" (The first Turkish newspaper of Cyprus) 30 cartoonists have published their works in all sorts of Turkish periodicals and dailies. Though some of these cartoonists are still busily involved in this profession and their carttons are still being published, some have been short lived and they have withdrawn into their shells. The cartoonists whose works were published and the names of the magazines and papers published by the Turkish Cypriot Press are as follows: Ahmet Rifat Efendi (Davul, Ses). İsmet V. Güney (İstiklal, Köylü), Şevki Çankaya (Halkın Sesi, Bozkurt, Hürsöz), Ramiz Gökçe (Halkın Sesi, Bozkurt, Times Of Cyprus, Cyprus Mail, Kurtuluş, Akrep, Olay, Kıbrıs Postası, Ortam, Yeni Düzen), Aziz Amerikalı (Amcabey), Tarık Arsal (Amcabey), M. Serhan Gazioğlu ( Yeni Düzen, Halkın Sesi, Yeni Çağ, Hekimce, Akrep, Çığır, Mimarca), Güner Pir (Halkın Sesi, Zaman, Kıbrıs Postası), Erdoğan Baybars (Savaş, Bozkurt, Halkın Sesi, Kıbrıs Postası, Yenigün, Akprep, Kıbrıslı, Lololo, Avrupa), Erten Kasımoğlu (Halkın Sesi, Yeni Devir, Öncü, Kurtuluş), Musa Kayra (Yeni Düzen, Halkın Sesi, Söz, Kurtuluş, Kıbrıs Postası, Akrep, Ortam, Olay, Kıbrıs Sanat), Necmi Astam (OLay, Halkın Sesi, Kıbrıs Postası, Buket, Bozkurt), Hüseyin Çakmak (Yeni Düzen, Bozkurt, Ortam, Gençlik, Özgürlük, Söz, Kıbrıs Postası, Akrep, Nokta Kıbrıs, Lololo, Yeşilada, Vatan, Kıbrıslı), Alper Susuzlu (Yeni Düzen, Kıbrıs Postası, Akrep, Kıbrıs, Lololo, Vatan, Demokrat), Mustafa C. Azizoğlu (Yeni Düzen, Gençlik), Zühal Denizci (Yeni Düzen, Ortam), Utku karsu (Söz, Kurtuluş, Ortam, Halkın Sesi, Buket, Akrep, Çağ-Ses, Kıbrıs, Sosyalist Gözlem), Mehmet Ulubatlı (Yeni Düzen, Akrep, Öğretmen), Mustafa Tozakı ( Yeni Düzen, Ortam, Akrep, Rekortmen, Vatan, Kıbrıs), Cemal Tunceri (Kıbrıs Postası, Bozkurt, Akrep, Lololo, Kıbrıs, Çağ-Ses, Yeni Düzen), Arif Albayrak (Ortam, Yeni Düzen, Kıbrıs, Akrep, Lololo, Hekimce), Bertan Soter (Yeni Düzen, Akrep), Aziz Yavuzdoğan (Kıbrıs, Ortam), Kemal Bozkurt (Bozkurt, Kıbrıs, Halkın Sesi), Ergin Asyalı (Birlik), Ergün Şöföroğlu (Halkın Sesi, Ortam)...

 THE PRIZES THAT TURKISH CARTOONOSTS HAVE BEEN AWARDED INTERNATIONALLY:
   
As from 1970's Turkish cartoonists turned their attention to international exhibitions so as to have acquaintance with the world of cartoon, contact with the artists in from different countries and find a place in this world. Of course, the most important reason for this act was the fact that Turkish Cypriot Press was dominated by the political parties and the majority of the pages in the newspapers and magazines were allocated fot the news bulletins of these parties. Newspapers and magazines were published with this mentality, articles and cartoons do not carry the value of "art and labour". Newspapers and magazines were prepared with militant views and reflect the views of political parties only.

    Any different view is not tolerated. Copyright and the return for the labour is out of the question. They are not interested in increasing the number of readers. The most important thing is the appearence of the statements made by the politicians or the party administrators in them. Therefore the cartoonists who have been excluded from the press had to participate in the international activities. Turkish Cypriot cartoonists not only have obtained professional credit but won more than 200 awards in the international cartoon activities that participated. Following are some of the prizes they were awarded:

MUSA KAYRA: The International Cartoon Competition of Nasrettin Hoca, "The Special Award", 1980-Türkiye... ETOS Art Association International Cartoon Competition, "Special Award", 1993-Sweden... The International Cartoon Competition of "Taejon", "Special Award", 1994-95-South Korea... ETOS Art Association Cartoon Competition, "Second Place Award", 1994-Sweden... One of His Works Was Placed in The International Cartoon Museum in Florida, "Diploma", 1997-USA... The Peace With Nature International Cartoon Contest, "Special Prize", 1998-Türkiye... The Turkish Standards Institute International Cartoon Competition, "2nd Prize", 1998-Cyprus...

ALPER SUSUZLU: Tib-Wats International Turkish Cartoonists Competition, "First Award", 1986-Switzerland... The International "Ancona" Cartoon Competition, "Silver Medal", 1989-1990-1992-Italy... "The City Council Award" of the International World Cartoon Competition of "Skopje", 1993- Macedonia... The International Cartoon Competition of "Marostica", "Special Award", 1995-Italy...

HÜSEYİN ÇAKMAK:  The International Cartoon Competition of "Bordighera", The Golden Date", 1989-Italy... "The European Council Award" of the International Cartoon Saloon of "Bordighera", 1989-Italy... The International Cartoon Competition of "Humor Center", "Bronze Medal", 1993- Russia... The International Cartoon Festival of "Harbor City", "Silver Medal", 1995- Australia... The International Cartoonists Against Crime Association, "The Year of International Cartoonist Prize", 1996-USA... One of His Works Was Placed in The International Cartoon Museum in Florida, "Diploma", 1997-USA... 1998-International Umoristica-Marostica Cartoon Competition "International Marostica Prize", 1998-Italy... The Turkish Standards Institute International Cartoon Competition, "3rd Prize", 1998-Cyprus...

MUSTAFA TOZAKI: Tib-Wats International Turkish Cartoonist Competition, "Second Award, 1986-Switzerland...

BERTAN SOYER: The International Cartoon Competition of "Brindissi", "The Special Jury Award", 1987-Italy... International Cartoon Festival of "Cafam", "Special Jury Award" 1993-Colombia...

ARİF ALBAYRAK: ETOS Cartoon Competition, "Special Award", 1994- Sweden... The International "Golden Mouflon" Cartoon Contest, "Special Prize", 1998-Cyprus...

CEMAL TUNCERİ: The Turkish Standards Institute International Cartoon Competition, "1st Prize", 1998-Cyprus... The International "Taejon" Cartoon Contest, "Mantition Prize", 1998-South Korea...

MEHMET İLKERLİ: International "Golden Mouflon" Cartoon Contest, "Special Prize", 1997-Cyprus...

ERDINÇ İLKERLİ: International "Golden Mouflon" Cartoon Contest, "Special Prize", 1998-Cyprus...

 

CARTOONS PRINTED IN BOOK BY THE TURKISH CYPRIOT CARTOONISTS AND THE ORGANIZATION OF THE TURKISH CYPRIOT CARTOOONISTS:

"Çizgi", Ramiz Gökçe (1955)... "Cızzzgıcıklar", Musa Kayra (1983)... "Taşlar", Necmi Astam (1984)... "Afrodit Adasından Çizgiler", Alper Susuzlu (1992)... "Ali Baba'nın Çiftliği", Utku Karsu (1992)... "Çevre Karikatür Albümü", KTMMOB-KTKD (1994)... "Turhan Selçuk-İnsan Hakları Karikatür Sergisi Albümü", KTKD (1994)... "Isırgan Otu", Cemal Tunceri (1996)... "10.Yıl Albümü", KTKD (1996)... "Kutlu Adalı-Faili Meçhul Karikatür Yarışması Albümü", Ada-m Yayınları, (1996)... "Mizahi Çizgiler ve Öyküler Albümü", KTKD-IK Yayınları, (1996)... "Cypriot Cartoon Exhibition Album", "İhsan Ali Foundation Publication", (1996)... "İlaç Karikatür Albümü, KTTB-KTKD Yayınları, (1997)... "Ulusal Altın Muflon Karikatür Yarışması Albümü", KTKD Yayınları, (1997)... "Tan Oral Karikatür Sergisi Albümü", MEKB Yayınları, (1998)... "YDÜ 1.Ulusal Karikatür Yarışması Albümü", YDÜ Yayınları, (1998)...

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Copyright  © 2002  MAhir Bilgisayar